Tuesday, April 30, 2013
Sunday, April 21, 2013
|D1||5mm. Red Led|
|J1||RCA Audio Input Socket|
|J2||RCA Audio Output Socket|
Saturday, April 13, 2013
A zener is used to limit the filtered voltage to 15-volt level. Mains presence is indicated by an LED. The low-level DC is used for charging capacitor C3 and reverse biasing switching transistor T1. Thus, transistor T1 remains cut-off as long as the mains supply is present. As soon as the mains power fails, the charge stored in the capacitor acts as a power-supply source for transistor T1. Since, in the absence of mains supply, the base of transistor is pulled ‘low’ via resistor R8, it conducts and sounds the buzzer (alarm) to give a warning of the power-failure.
Voltage Range: 0.7V to 24V, Current Range: 50mA to 2A
A variable dc power supply is one of the most useful tools on the electronics hobbyists workbench. This circuit is not an absolute novelty, but it is simple, reliable, "rugged" and short-proof, featuring variable voltage up to 24V and variable current limiting up to 2A. You can adapt it to your own requirements as explained in the notes below.
Circuit Diagram :
Variable DC Power Supply Circuit Diagram
P1 = 500R
P2 = 10K
R1 = 2.2K-1/2w
R2 = 2.2K-1/2w
R3 = 330R
R4 = 150R
R5 = 1R-5W
C1 = 35V-3300uF
D1 = 1N5402
D2 = 1N5402
D3 = 5mm Red Led
C2 = 63V-1uF
Q1 = BC182
Q2 = BD139
Q3 = BC212
Q4 = 2N3055
SW1 = SPST Mains Switch
T1 = 36VCT-Transformer
- P1 sets the maximum output current you want to be delivered by the power supply at a given output voltage.
- P2 sets the output voltage and must be a logarithmic taper type, in order to obtain a more linear scale voltage indication.
- You can choose the Transformer on the grounds of maximum voltage and current output needed. Best choices are: 36, 40 or 48V center-tapped and 50, 75, 80 or 100VA.
- Capacitor C1 can be 2200 to 6800µF, 35 to 50V.
- Q4 must be mounted on a good heatsink in order to withstand sustained output short-circuit. In some cases the rear panel of the metal box in which you will enclose the circuit can do the job.
- The 2N3055 transistor (Q4) can be replaced with TIP3055 type.
Source : www.redcircuits.com
- Before surroundings quiescent current rotate the volume control P1 to the minimum, Trimmer R6 to zero resistance and Trimmer R3 to concerning the center of its travel.
- Connect a suitable headphone set or, higher, a three3 Ohm 1/2W resistor to the amplifier output.
- Connect a Multimeter, set to measure about 10Vdc fsd, throughout the positive end of C5 and the poor floor.
- Switch on the availability and rotate R3 so as to examine 7.7-7.8V on the Multimeter show.
- Switch off the availability, disconnect the Multimeter and reconnect it, set to measure at the least 200mA fsd, in series to the positive provide of the amplifier.
- Switch on the provide and rotate R6 slowly except a studying of about 100mA is displayed.
- Check again the voltage on the certain end of C5 and readjust R3 if important.
- Wait about quarter-hour, watch if the present is varying and readjust if essential.
P1 : 22K Dual gang Log Potentiometer
R1 : 15K
R2 : 220K
R3 : 100K
R4 : three3K
R5 : 68K
R6 : 50K
R7 : 10K
R8,R9 : four7K
R10,R11 : 2R2
R12 : fourK7
R13 : fourR7
R14 : 1K2
R15,R18 : 330K
R16 : 680K
R17,R19 : 220K
R20,R21 : 22K
C1,C2,C3,C4 : 10µF/25V
C5,C7 : 220µF/25V
C6,C11 : 100nF
C8 : 2200µF/25V
C9,C12 : 1nF
C10 : 470pF
C13 : 15nF
D1 : LED
D2,D3 : 1N4002
Q1,Q2 : BC550C
Q3 : BC560C
Q4 : BD136
Q5 : BD135
IC1 : 7815
T1 : 15CT/5VA Mains transformer
SW1 : four poles 3 manners rotary Switch
SW2 : SPST slide or toggle Switch
Friday, April 12, 2013
1 Watt Simple LED Driver Circuit with Current Control, Circuit Diagram,
As can be seen in the diagram, the concept hardly utilizes any circuit or rather does not incorporate any hi-end active component for the required implementation of driving a 1 watt LED.
The only active devices thats been employed in the circuit are a few diodes and a mechanical switch.
The initial 6 volts from a charged battery is dropped to the required 3.5 volts limit by keeping all the diodes in series or in the path of the LED supply voltage.
Since each diode drops 0.6 volts across it, all four together allow only 3.5 volts to reach the LED, lighting it safely, yet brightly.
As the illumination of the LED drops, each diode is bypassed subsequently using the switch, to restore the brightness of the LED.
The use of the diodes for dropping the voltage level across the LEDs makes sure that the procedure does not dissipate any heat and therefore becomes very efficient in comparison to a resistor, which would have otherwise dissipated a lot of heat in the process.
1 x PIC16F84A Microcontroller
1 x 220V/12V 3.6VA (or 3.2VA) PCB Type Transformer (EI 38/13.6)
1 x Line Filter (2x10mH 1:1 Transformer)
4 x 12V Relay (SPDT Type)
4 x BC141 NPN Transistor
5 x 2 Terminal PCB Terminal Block
4 x 1N4007 Diode
1 x 250V Varistor (20mm Diameter)
1 x PCB Fuse Holder
1 x 400mA Fuse
2 x 100nF/630V Unpolarized Capacitor
1 x 220uF/25V Electrolytic Capacitor
1 x 47uF/16V Electrolytic Capacitor
1 x 10uF/16V Electrolytic Capacitor
2 x 330nF/63V Unpolarized Capacitor
1 x 100nF/63V Unpolarized Capacitor
1 x 4MHz Crystal Oscillator
2 x 22pF Capacitor
1 x 18 Pin 2 Way IC Socket
4 x 820 Ohm 1/4W Resistor
1 x 1K 1/4W Resistor
1 x 4.7K 1/4W Resistor
1 x 7805 Voltage Regulator (TO220)
1 x 7812 Voltage Regulator (TO220)
1 x 1A Bridge Diode
Circuit Diagram of Water Sensor
We can make the water sensor as shown in the image (Fig-1) using aluminum conductor like a naked wire . Here can be used other conductor but we suggesting to use aluminum.
|1995 Ford Windstar Wiring Diagram|
fuse panel, ignition switch, digital cluster, analog cluster, integral alternator regulator, screw, field, warning indicator, stator, rectifier, switching circuits
They can be categoryified in to lessons A, B, C & AB. They are outlined based on the % of the cycle of enter signal that can produce output current.
Thursday, April 11, 2013
Switching from one operating system to another - that’s a risky business, isn’t it? Although this may be a bit of an exaggeration, the safest approach is still to install two different operating systems on the same PC, so you can always easily use the ‘old’ operating system if the new one fails to meet your needs (or suit your taste). A software solution is often used for such a ‘dual system’. A program called a ‘boot manager’ can be used to allow the user to choose, during the start-up process, which hard disk will be used for starting up the computer. Unfortunately, this does not always work ﬂawlessly, and in most cases this boot manager is replaced by the standard boot loader of the operating system when a new operating system is installed.
In many cases, the only remedy is to reinstall the software. The solution presented here does not suffer from this problem. It is a hardware solution that causes the primary and secondary hard disk drives to ‘swap places’ when the computer is started up, if so desired. From the perspective of the computer (and the software running on the computer), it appears as though these two hard disks have actually changed places. This trick is made possible by a feature of the IDE specification called ‘CableSelect’. Every IDE hard disk can be conﬁgured to use either Master/Slave or CableSelect. In the latter case, a signal on the IDE cable tells the hard disk whether it is to act as the master or slave device. For this reason, in every IDE cable one lead is interrupted between the connectors for the two disk drives, or the relevant pin is omitted from the connector.
This causes a low level to be present on the CS pin of one of the drives and a high level to be present on the CS pin of the other one (at the far end of the cable). The circuit shown here is connected to the IDE bus of the motherboard via connector K1. Most of the signals are fed directly from K1 to the other connectors (K2 and K3). An IDE hard disk is connected to K2, and a second one is connected to K3. When the computer is switched on or reset, a pulse will appear on the RESET line of the IDE interface. This pulse clocks ﬂip-ﬂop IC1a, and depending on the state of switch S1, the Q output will go either high or low. The state on the Q output is naturally always the opposite of that on the Q output. If we assume that the switch is closed during start-up, a low level will be present on D input of IC1a, so the Q output will be low following the reset pulse.
This low level on the Q output will cause transistor T1 to conduct. The current flowing through T1 will cause LED D1 to light up and transistor T2 to conduct. The hard disk attached to connector K2 will thus see a low level on its CS pin, which will cause it to act as the master drive and thus appear to the computer as the C: drive. A high level will appear on the Q output following the reset pulse. This will prevent T3 and T4 from conducting, with the consequence that LED D2 will be extinguished and the hard disk attached to connector K3 will see a high level on its CS pin. For this disk, this indicates that it is to act as a slave drive (D: drive).
If S1 is open when the reset pulse occurs, the above situation is of course reversed, and the hard disk attached to connector K2 will act as the D: drive, while the hard disk attached to connector K3 will act as the C: drive. Flip-ﬂop IC1a is included here to prevent the hard disks from swapping roles during use. This could have disastrous consequences for the data on the hard disks, and it would most likely cause the computer to crash. This means that you do not have to worry about affecting the operation of the computer if you change the switch setting while the computer is running. The state of the ﬂip-ﬂop, and thus the configuration of the hard disks, can only be changed during a reset.
The circuit is powered from a power connector for a 3.5-inch drive. This advantage of using this connector is that it easily ﬁts onto a standard 4-way header. However, you must observe the correct polarity when attaching the connector. The red lead must be connected to pin 1. Constructing the hard disk selector is easy if the illustrated printed circuit board is used. You will need three IDE cables to connect the circuit. The best idea is to use short cables with only two connectors, with all pins connected 1:1 (no interruption in the CS line). The IDE connector on the motherboard is connected to K1 using one cable. A cable then runs from K2 to first hard disk, and another cable runs from K3 to the second hard disk. This means that it is not possible to connect more than two hard disks to this circuit. You must also ensure that the jumpers of both disk drives are conﬁgured for CableSelect. To find out how to do this, refer to the user manual(s) for the drives
The video amplifier in the diagram is a well-known design. Simple, yet very useful, were it not for the ease with which the transistors can be damaged if the potentiometers (black level and signal amplitude) are in their extreme position. Fortunately, this can be obviated by the addition of two resistors. If in the diagram R3 and R4 were direct connections, as in the original design, and P1 were fully clockwise and P2 fully anticlockwise, such a large base current would flow through T1 that this transistor would give up the ghost.
Video Amplifier Circuit Diagram
Moreover, with the wiper of P2 at earth level, the base current of T2 would be dangerously high. Resistors R3 and R4 are sufficient protection against such mishaps, since they limit the base currents to a level of not more than 5 mA. Shunt capacitor C4 prevents R4 having an adverse effect on the amplification.
Author: L.A.M. Prins - Copyright: Elektor Electronics
As opposed to the widespread Baxandall circuit (dating back to 1952!) a ‘paraphrase’ tone control supplies a straight frequency response as long as the bass and treble controls are in the same position. This unique property makes the ‘paraphase’ configuration of interest if only treble or bass needs to be adjusted - it is not possible to adjust both at the same time! Essentially, it’s the difference in setting of the tone controls that determines the slope of the frequency response, and the degree of bass/treble correction. The circuit is simplicity itself, based on two networks C1-C2-C3/R9-R10-R11 and C5-C6-C7/R12-R13-R14.
Picture of the project:
Paraphase Tone Controller Circuit
The first is for the high frequencies (treble) response, the second, for the low frequencies (bass). The roll-off points have been selected, in combination with C4 and C8, for the sum of the two output signals to re-appear with a ‘straight’ frequency response again at the output. Roughly equal output levels from the networks are ensured by R6 = 7.15 k and R8 = 6.80 k. However, the operating principle requires the input signals to the two networks to be in anti-phase. For best operation the networks are driven by two buffers providing some extra gain.
Paraphase Tone Controller Circuit Diagram
The gain of IC1.D is slightly higher than that of IC1.C to ensure the overall response curve remains as flat as possible at equal settings of the tone controls. Because each network introduces a loss of about 1.72 (times), IC1.D and IC1.C first amplify the signal. The gain is set at about 8 (times) allowing input signal levels up to 1 V to pass the circuit at maximum gain and distortion-free. The gain also compensates the attenuation if you prefer to keep the tone controls at the mid positions for a straight response.
Parts and PCB layout:
Parts and PCB Layout
To audio fans, the circuit is rewarding to experiment with, especially in respect of the crossover point of the two networks. R3 and R4 determine the control range, which may be increased (within limits) by using lower resistor values here. The values shown ensure a tone control range of about 20 dB. IC1.B buffers the summed signal across R15. C9 removes any DC-offset voltage and R16 protects the output buffer from the effects of too high capacitive loads. R17, finally, keeps the output at 0 V. The choice of the quad opamp is relatively uncritical. Here the unassuming TL074 is used but you may even apply rail to rail opamps as long as they are stable at unity gain. Also, watch the supply voltage range. A simple circuit board was designed for the project. Linear-law potentiometers may be fitted directly onto the board. Two boards are required for a stereo application. The relevant connections on the boards are then wired to a stereo control potentiometer.
- Current consumption (no signal) 8 mA
- Max. input signal 1 Veff (at max. gain)
- Gain at 20 Hz +13.1 dB max. –6.9 dB min.
- at 20 kHz +12.2 dB max. –7.6 dB min
- Gain (controls at mid position) 2.38 x
- Distortion (1 Veff, 1 kHz) 0.002% (B = 22kHz) 0.005% (B = 80 kHz)
R1-R4 = 10k
R5,R7 = 1k
R6 = 7k15
R8 = 6k80
R9,R10,R11 = 8k2
R12,R13,R14 = 2k2
R15 = 1M
R16 = 100R
R17 = 100k
P1,P2 = 100k preset or chassis-
mount control potentiometer, linear law
C1,C2,C3 = 47nF MKT, lead pitch 5mm
C4 = 68nF MKT, lead pitch 5mm
C5,C6,C7 = 10nF MKT, lead pitch 5mm
C8,C10,C11 = 100nF MKT, lead pitch 5mm
C9 = 2µF2 MKT, lead pitch 5mm or 7.5mm
IC1 = TL074
K1,K2 = line socket, PCB mount, e.g.
Author: Ton Giesberts - Copyright: Elektor Electronics
|1997 Chevrolet Blazer Electrical Wiring Diagram|
|1969 Pontiac Firebird Electrical Wiring DIagram|
Wednesday, April 10, 2013
We are all familiar with a Peltier device and know how it functions.
Basically it works on the principle of thermo-electric effect (opposite of Seebeck Effect) where a potential difference is used for making or producing hot and cold temperatures over the two ends of a dissimilar metal assembly.
More innovative circuits HERE.
A Peltier device has two terminals in the form of wire ends which requires to be connected across a voltage source rich in current content.
The application of voltage instantly starts transforming one surface of the unit hot and the reverse surface cool very fast.
However, the hot end must be quickly managed so that the heat does not reach higher levels, which can completely hamper the heating and cooling process and ruin the device itself.
Therefore the hot surface must be attached with heavy heatsinking materials like aluminum or copper metal of suitable sizes.
The simple construction of a simple peltier refrigerator shown in the figure demonstrates the above discussed set up where two such devices are appropriately fixed with aluminum plates for radiating different degrees of temperatures from their relevant sides.
The plates responsible for generating the cooling effects must be trapped inside a well insulated enclosure made up of thermocole or polyurethane foam etc.
The inside chamber may be used for storing water bottles or water packets as desired.
The hot heatsinked surfaces must be exposed in the outside air for radiations and for controlling the temperatures of "hot" ends of the unit, see figure.
On many cars, the boot light will not go out until the lid is properly closed. It is all too easy when unloading the car, to leave the lid ajar. If you are unlucky and the car remains unused for some time, the next time you try to start it, the lamp will have drained the battery and you will no doubt utter a few appropriate words. The circuit described here will give a warning of just such a situation.
A mercury tilt switch is mounted in the boot so that as the lid is closed, its contacts close before the lid is completely shut. The supply for the circuit comes from the switched 12 V to the boot lamp and through the mercury switch. When the lid is properly closed, the boot lamp will go out and the supply to the circuit will go to zero. If however the lid is left ajar, the lamp will be on and the mercury switch will close the circuit.
After 5 seconds, the alarm will start to sound, and unless the lid is shut, it will continue for 1 minute to remind you to close the boot properly. The 1-minute operating period will ensure that the alarm does not sound continuously if you are, for example, transporting bulky items and the boot will not fully close. The circuit consists of a dual CMOS timer type 7556 (the bipolar 556 version is unsuitable for this application). When power is applied to the circuit (i.e. the boot lid is ajar) tantalum capacitors C1 and C2 will ensure that the outputs of the timers are high. After approximately 5 seconds, when the voltage across C2 rises to 2/3 of the supply voltage, timer IC1b will be triggered and its output will go low thereby causing the alarm to sound.
Meanwhile the voltage across C1 is rising much more slowly and after approximately 1 minute, it will have reached 2/3 of the supply voltage. IC1a will now trigger and this will reset IC1b. The alarm will be turned off. IC1a will remain in this state until the boot lid is either closed or opened wider at which point C1 and C2 will be discharged through R6 and the circuit will be ready to start again. To calculate the period of the timers use the formula: t = 1.1RC Please note that the capacitor type used in the circuit should be tantalum or electrolytic with a solid electrolyte. The buzzer must be a type suitable for use at D.C. (i.e. one with a built in driver).
Source : www.extremecircuits.net
Fuse Box Toyota 93 Camry 2200 Diagram
Fuse Panel Layout Diagram Parts: ABS ECU, door lock control relay, cooling gan ECU, center air bag sensor, fuse/relay block, integration relay, A/C amplifier, shift lock control ECU, daytime running light relay,fuse relay, engine control module, electronic control transmission ECU, junction block, cruise control ECU.
RS-232 interface, DB-9
Header for LCD display
I2C, PCF8574 I / O extender
AT24C04, I2C EEPROM
Tuesday, April 9, 2013
USB Battery Charger For Lithium Ion battery with the LM3622 is a series of lithium ion battery charger. This charger circuit operates using power from the USB source PC.
Current consumption of a series of USB Battery Charger For Lithium Ion battery with 400mA LM3622 is limited by R1, so it does not exceed the current maximum limit that can be given by a USB computer. Brains from USB Battery Charger For Lithium Ion battery with IC LM3622 , it is a national of having special technical specification charger for lithium ion batteries.
|Filter | PreAmp Subwoofer circuit diagram|
R1 = 39 Kohm , R2 = 39 Kohm,R3 = 47 Kohm,R4 = 10 Ohm,R5 = 22 Kohm,R6 = 4.7 Kohm,R7 = 22 Kohm, R8 = 4.7 Kohm, R9 = 10 Ohm, R10 = 220 Ohm, C1 = 39 pF,C2 = 0.1 UF,C3 = 0.1 UF, C4 = 0.2 UF, C5 = 0.4 UF, C6 = 0.1, UF C7 = 0.1 UF, IC1 = TL064
The operational amplifier is included in a family is equipped with field-effect transistor IFET in their entries. Each member is allocated a family in bipolar transistor circuits and field effect. This circuit can function in a high inclination, because of their high propensity to use transistors. Also they have the high honor rhythm elevation (slew rate), low polarization at this time for entry and little influenced by temperature. The operational amplifier has an area of 3MHz unity gain bandwidth. Another important element for them is a great choice reject noise, there are currently in the line of catering.
Actually, the circuit shown is a temperature-dependent current source, since it uses the variation of the quiescent current with changes in temperature. The values of resistors R3 and R4 are calculated to give an output voltage of 10mV °C–1. Where good accuracy is desirable or necessary, 1% resistors should be used. In this context, note that a loss resistance in the link between sensor and measuring circuit may cause a measurement error of about 1 °C for every 5 ohms of resistance. Capacitor C1 eliminates undesired interference and noise signals. At an ambient temperature of 25 °C, the circuit draws a current of about 2mA.
Circuit diagram :
Parts List :
R1____________10K 1/4W Resistor
R2,R3_________22K 1/4W Resistors
R4___________100K 1/4W Resistor
R5,R9,R10_____56K 1/4W Resistors
R6_____________5K6 1/4W Resistor
R7___________560R 1/4W Resistor
R8_____________2K2 1/4W Resistor
R11____________1K 1/4W Resistor
R12___________33K 1/4W Resistor
R13__________330R 1/4W Resistor
C1___________100nF 63V Polyester Capacitor
C2____________10µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
C3___________470µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
C4____________47µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
D1_____________5mm. Red LED
IC1__________LM358 Low Power Dual Op-amp
Q1___________BC327 45V 800mA PNP Transistor
MIC1_________Miniature electret microphone
SW1__________2 poles 4 ways rotary switch
B1___________9V PP3 Battery
Clip for PP3 Battery
- Place the small box containing the circuit in the room where you intend to measure ambient noise.
- The 50 dB setting is provided to monitor the noise in the bedroom at night. If the LED is steady on, or flashes bright often, then your bedroom is inadequate and too noisy for sleep.
- The 70 dB setting is for living-rooms. If this level is often exceeded during the day, your apartment is rather uncomfortable.
- If noise level is constantly over 85 dB, 8 hours a day, then you are living in a dangerous environment.
Source by : Streampowers